The Dooars belonged to the Kamata Kingdom under the Koch dynasty; and taking advantage of the weakness of the Koch kingdom in subsequent times, Bhutan took possession of the Dooars. This region was controlled by the kingdom of Bhutan when the British annexed it in 1865 after the Bhutan War under the command of Captain Hedayat Ali. The area was divided into two parts: the eastern part was merged with Goalpara district in Assam and the western part was turned into a new district named Western Dooars. Again in the year 1869, the name was changed to Jalpaiguri District. After the end of the British rule in India in 1947, the Dooars acceded into the dominion of India and it merged with the Union of India shortly afterwards in 1949.
The native people of this region generally have Mongoloid features. They are composed of numerous tribes, including the Bodo in Assam, and the Rabha, the Mech, the Toto, the Koch Rajbongshi, the Tamang/Murmi, the Limbu, the Lepcha in Bengal. Most of the people found here are Nepali community . Apart from the tribal population, a large Bengali population (mostly displaced from the then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) by the Partition of Bengal) also populate the Dooars and their culture emerged with local people.
The Dooars are famous for the tea gardens which were planted by the British. For working in the gardens, they imported labour from Nepal and the Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. The Oraons, Mundas, Kharia, Mahali, Lohara and Chik Baraik are the tribals from these areas. The tribal of Chotanagpur origin are employed in tea gardens, which started production during the 1870s. Before the settlement of other communities, these people converted the forests into villages and busties (agriculture village). The remnants of these tribal people form a majority of the population in Western Dooars.
The Dooars is a large region and is dotted with many towns and cities. The largest city in the whole region stretching from the Darjeeling foothills to the Arunachal Pradesh foothills is Siliguri. This northern Bengal city is well connected with the rest of country by road, air and railway and is the business hub of the region.
The other major cities are Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Goalpara, Barpeta and Dhubri in Assam. Cooch Behar, Alipurduar, Jalpaiguri, Malbazar, Mainaguri and Birpara are the major cities of the Dooars in West Bengal, and Kishanganj in Bihar. Also, the commercial capital of Bhutan, Phuentsholing, near Jaigaon, can be considered a part of this region.
The word Tinchuley Jhalong, The hill station is very near the Indo-Bhutan border on the banks of the Jaldhaka River, on the way to Bindu. Jaldhaka Hydro Electricity Project on the Jaldhaka River is a major attraction in this area. Bird lovers can enjoy a varied collection of hill birds as well as migratory water fowl here. Jhalang" is a village in the Kalimpong subdivision of Darjeeling district in West Bengal,Jhalong is very popular among adventure enthusiasts and those who are interested in nature vacations. Jhalong is situated on the foothill of the Himalayas and there are numerous activities that you can engage in. Nearby Dam at bindu attracts various hill birds as well as migratory birds. Trekking is a popular activity in the region and the main routes lead to Tangta and Todey. Jhalong is very populous among adventure enthusiasts and those who are interested in nature vacations. Jhalong is situated on the foothills of the Himalayas and there are numerous activities that you can engage in. Near by Dam at bindu attracts various hill birds as well as migratory birds. Trekking is a popular activity in the region and the main routes lead to Tangta and Todey.
Samsing, is a small hill village and tourist spot in the Malbazar subdivision of Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal situated at an elevation of 3000 ft in the foothills of Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling districts border. It is known for its beautiful landscape with green tea gardens, hills and forests, which attract a lot of tourists. It lies 18 km from the Neora Valley National Park. It is the home of more than 2500 people. Its climate is noted for fog and cool breezes and a high rainfall. It has lots of beautiful picnic spots and tourist place. Some of them are Lali Guras, Rocky Island and Suntaley Khola. Neora Valley National Park is in a distance of an hour from here. Here you can find the fusion of hills, plains, rivers, forest, tea-garden and villages. In fact,it is a cute tea garden inhabited by lovely and helpful nepali people. Many local people are associated with tourism / tea / timber - related businesses. Samsing is a progressive place as the people have always valued education and their cultures.The early settlers in this village as a tea plantation labours were two people one from Rangeli, Sikkim and other from Nepal Mountain region. They left their place when they heard the legend that in plane people pluck the money. It grows on tea plants.
Gorumara National Parkis a National Park in northern West Bengal, India. Located in the Terai region of the Himalayan foothills, it is a medium-sized park with grasslands and forests. It is primarily known for its population of Indian Rhinoceros. The park has been declared as the best among the protected areas in India by the Ministry of Environment and Forests for the year 2009.
Gorumara was a reserve forest since 1895. The park was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1949, on account of its breeding population ofIndian Rhinoceros. It was declared an Indian National Park on January 31, 1994. Originally as small as 7 km², Gorumara has grown by incorporating neighboring lands to about 80 km².
The park is located in the Malbazar subdivision of Jalpaiguri district, in the state of West Bengal in India.
In this regard, Gorumara is a significant watershed area between the Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems. The park is very close to Jaldapara National Park and Chapramari Wildlife Reserve.
Lataguri and Chalsa is the nearest small tourist strip near Gorumara National Park, Privet lodge, Govt. lodge and hotel are available. Tourist may visit Gorumara national Park in day time. Day visit permission to the National Perk may be obtained from Nature Interpretation Centre ( West Bengal Forest Department).
Another attractive tourist spot is the `Rocky island nature resort` on the banks of river Murti. This is about 2 km from Samsing. The view of the river and surrounding forests are excellent from Rocky Island but tourist amenities are basic. Accommodation is arranged in small Tents for overnight visitors. The owners of this small resort are true nature lovers and have so far resisted any attempt to commercialise this unique place. majestic vacation is in regular touch with them and actively support their endeavour.
Jaldapara National Park is a national park situated at the foothills of Eastern Himalayas in Alipurduar Sub-Division of Jalpaiguri district in West Bengal and on the bank of river Torsa. Jaldapara wild life Santuary is a protected Park at the Foot hills of Easern Himalayas in Alipurduar sub- Divition of Jalpaiguri District. Jaldapara is altitude of 61 mt. and is spread across 216.51 km2 (83.59 sq mi) of vast grassland with patches of riverine forests. It was declared a sanctuary in 1941 for protection of the great variety flora and fauna. Today main attraction of the sanctuary is Asiatic One-Horned Rhinoceros. The sanctuary holds the maximum number of Rhinos population in India after Assam The other animals consist of Bison/ Indian Gaur, Royal Bengal Tigers, Common Leopard, Leopard cat, Elephants, Samber deer, Barking Deer, Spotted Deer, Hog Deer, Wild Pig. Jaldapara is an attract for bird watchers. It is one of the very few places in India, where the Bengal florican is sighted. The other birds to be found here are the crested eagle, Pallas's fish eagle, shikra, Finn's weaver,jungle fowl, peafowl (peacock), partridge, and lesser Pied Hornbill. Pythons, monitor lizards, kraits, cobras,geckos, mosaic of vegetation and rich insect life. More than 240 species of birds are found in variety and about 8 species of fresh water turtles can also be found here.
The famous river of the region named as Torsha River traverses through this refrain forest sanctuary, which is all covered with lush greenery grasslands, river banks, tall grasses and constant flowing streams.
Elephant rides are the most important activity in the park and this is extremely popular among the visitors. You can go into the depths of the jungle and it can be a phenomenal experience. Jeep Safaris are also available in the park and these are a good way to see.
The nearby Chilapata Forests is an elephant corridor between Jaldapara and the Buxa Tiger Reserve.
Buxa in 1866, the Forest Department first took charge of these forests and the Buxa Tiger Reserve was established under project Tiger in February 1983. The area was demarcated into core and buffer zone only in 1986 and it wasn’t until 1992, when it was declared a National Park that the areas were brought under the administrative control of the Field Director. Buxa has an area of 745 sq km ,the largest forest in North Bengal and has the second highest tiger population in West Bengal after sunderbans.
The numerous vegetation patterns comprising evergreen, wet mixed deciduous foreses, and hill tracts complemented by riverine forests encompass a variety of animals. About 67 mammal species are reported to thrive in the reserve including 21 endangered species. The Bengal Tiger Panthera tigers is clearly the apex species of Buxa. Leopard Panthera pardus, clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa may also be occasionally seen by a lucky few. Indian civet Viverridae , sloth bear Melusus ursinus, wild boar sus scrofa and the Yellow throated Marten also reside in these forests. Gaur Bos gaurus, chital Cervus axis, sambar Cervus unicolor and the muntjac Muntiacus muntijac comprise the prey species. The Asian elephant Elephas maximus is believed to migrate between those forests and those in Bhutan. The Rhesus macaque Macacu mulatta, common langur Presbytis entellus, civets Viverridae spp and porcupine Hystrix spp are other mammalian species. The Malayan Giant Squirrel, blacknaped hare, flying squirrel, the mongoose and a huge population of bats and rats are some of the smaller inhabitants of those forests.
Totopara is a small village in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal, India.
This village is home to the unique Toto tribe that is one of a kind in the world. The village is about 22 km from Madarihat, which is the entry point of the famous Jaldapara National Park, Toto-para name comes from the Toto tribes.
It is bounded by the foothills of Bhutan to the north, Torsa River to the east, and Titi river and the Titi reserve forest on the south-west separated by the Hauri river.
There is a single lane motorable road leading to this village from the National Highway 31 through Hantapara. The area of the village is about 8.08 km².
Totos were nearly becoming extinct in the 1950s, but recent measures to safeguard their areas from being swamped with outsiders have helped preserve their unique heritage and also helped the population grow. The total population In 1991 census, the Toto population had increased to 926 who lived in 180 different houses. In the 2001 census, their number had increased to 1184 - all living in Totopara.
As to the past history of the Totos writes Sailen Debnath, "The Totos are the descendants, most probably, of some fugitive tribe of Bhutan to have been driven out from the mountains by the early Bhutanese-cum-Tibetatans from the period of Sabdrung Nagwang Namgyal. They might have fled that country to take shelter in a cluster in the jungles of the Dooars. The physical appearance and skin colour of the Totos do not anyway confirm their Mongoloid origin. From this it can be surmised that the Totos might have been the offspring of some people of Indian origin to have settled in Bhutan and then driven out from that country to the plains of the sub-Himalayan zone of the Dooars. Or the Totos might have some blood mixture with the fugitive slaves of Bhutan whose forefathers had been dragged away to Bhutan from the plains and enslaved.
Ishpa - He is supposed to live in the Bhutan hills, and causes sickness when displeased. The Totos offer him animal sacrifices and Eu. Cheima - She keeps the village and its people safe from troubles and sicknesses. She is also offered rice, fowls and Eu.
The Totos have no priests and offer their worship and sacrifices on their own. Ishpa is worshipped in the open outside the house and Cheima inside the house.
Totos cultivate land. The Totos are not active farmers and hence do not cultivate a particular crop to a great extent. In these gardens they grow vegetables, potatoes and bananas, among others. Sometimes they trade with traders from the outside the village. Some Totos raise cows and pigs as an occupation.
At different stages of history, the Toto tribe has been moving away from a subsistence economy to market economy. Further, the transformations of the village from community ownership of land to individual land holding and from isolated tribal group to a multi-ethnic habitat have also taken place in the recent past.